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Welcome to our page on Edinburgh’s history…isn’t every page on our site about this fascinating topic?  Well yes, but here’s an outline of the story of Edinburgh, written for us by a guest writer.
A brief history of Edinburgh
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The History of Edinburgh The City of Edinburgh has a very interesting history. There is evidence that Edinburgh’s history began thousands of years in the past. Then in the Middle Ages, a hill fort was established in the area. Then from the seventh to the tenth centuries, the city was part of the Kingdom of Northumbria and became a royal residence of the Kings of Scotland. The town became a stronghold through a royal charter in the 12th century and has been known as the capital of Scotland by the 14th century. The New Town area was added to the town in the 18th century. It used to be the largest Scottish city until Glasgow outgrew it at the beginning of the 19th century. The Beginning of the History of Edinburgh Archaeologists have discovered piles of shells that suggested the first inhabitants of Scotland ate mussels and oysters around the Firth of Forth. The camps were dated to be from 8,500 BC, which is the earliest known human activity in the country. Once the Ice Age ended, people were encouraged to make the area we know as Edinburgh their home. Signs of habitation were seen on Edinburgh’s Castle Rock and have been dated to 900 BC. There is also proof that people planted their own crops on the slopes of Arthur’s Seat as hints of cultivation terraces were discovered. Roman’s Role in Edinburgh’s History The Romans invaded Britain in 55 BC as Julius Caesar led his legions across the English Channel. But the Romans failed to easily subdue the northern tribes. From AD 78 to 84, Roman governor Agricola tried for several years to fight the people they called Picts due to their painted face and bodies. It was Agricola’s son-in-law Tacitus who called the northern part of Scotland Caledonia, after the first tribe he encountered.  Emperor Hadrian decided that most of the land in the north was inhospitable and in AD 122 to 128, he built the wall that remained to be the modern border between England and Scotland. History of Edinburgh’s Name When the Roman got to Lothian region, they met Votadini the chief tribe of the settlements on Blackford Hill, Arthur’s Seat and Castle Rock. There’s little known about these early Britons, but it is likely they were the ancestors of the Gododdin. The centre of Gododdin was named Dun Eiden, which means Fort on the Hill Slope. Scholars say, it is what is now known as Castle Rock. The Angles defeated Gododdin and got Dun Eiden in 638. The Angles used the existing Celtic name Eiden and added burh, the Old English for fort. And that’s the history of Edinburgh’s name. Edinburgh’s History during the Reign of the MacAlpin Kings The name Scotland comes from Scotti, a Gaelic tribe that took the west of Scotland in the 6th century. The Scots and Picts got together due to the threat of a Viking invasion as well as their Christianity. Kenneth MacAlpin, king of Dalraida and son of a Pictish princess, united Scotland into a single kingdom. In 1035 his grandson Duncan I became the first King of Scotland. Edinburgh’s History in the Medieval and Renaissance Era King Malcolm III Canmore built his castle at Edinburgh, and his wife Queen Margaret constructed a chapel inside its perimeter. It remains the city’s oldest building to date. Their son David I constructed the Abbey at Holyrood to the East along the Royal Mile. A town grew along the side of the road between the castle and the abbey. During the Wars of Independence, the English captured Edinburgh Castle but it was recaptured by Thomas Randolph by climbing up the craggy side at night. The hero was Robert the Bruce’s nephew. It was Robert the Bruce who gave Edinburgh a Royal Chapter. Since then it grew and became the Capital of Scotland by the end of 1603.   When King James VI became the king of England in 1603, Edinburgh stopped to be the main site of the royal court but it retained its own Parliament. History of Edinburgh and its Union with England When the investment venture in Panama failed, bankruptcy spread throughout Scotland. Scottish merchants and stockholders want to pursue union with England in order to make money in the developing colonies. Even though the public didn’t want it, the Act of Union took effect on May 1, 1707. It brought the two countries having one sovereign, one flag and one parliament. This was one of the memorable moments in Edinburgh’s history. New Town in the History of Edinburgh Edinburgh stabilised in the second half of the 18th century and allowed the town to expand, but the Old Town tenements around the Royal Mile were becoming more unsanitary to live in and too overcrowded. The city council proposed an architectural competition to make a New Town. Over the next 50 years, Georgian terraces were constructed across the low ridge north of Edinburgh Castle. Edinburgh’s History during the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution didn’t affect Edinburgh as much as Glasgow, but it brought changes to the town. Aside from the traditional industries of brewing, baking, publishing, and distilling, new industries were introduced. Edinburgh became home to glass factories, light engineering, potteries, and ironworks. Its population increased rapidly and in 1822; the Union Canal was completed. It allowed coal from the Midlothian mines to be transported to the Clyde Canal and Forth towards Glasgow. But just as the canal was completed, it became useless due to the railways. Modern History of Edinburgh After the landslide victory of the Labour Party in 1997, a referendum was held with regards to the creation of a Scottish Parliament. The result was in favour and the Scotland Act 1998 declared the creation of the parliament. Elections were held on May 1999, and the parliament convened on May 12, six days after the election. Its former home was in the Church of Scotland at the top of the Royal Mile, but it was moved to its current home in Holyrood at the foot the of Royal Mile.
Salisbury Crags Arthurs Seat terracing Edinburgh Castle siege New Town Edinburgh symmetry Holyrood parliament BOOK OLD EDINBURGH TOUR BOOK GREYFRIARS KIRKYARD TOUR CONTACT US ABOUT A PRIVATE TOUR
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ADDRESS 28/2 Bridge Road Colinton Edinburgh United Kingdom EH13 0LQ
CONTACT Mail: robert@historicedinburghtours.co.uk Phone: 079590026077
Copyright Historic Edinburgh Tours 2017
  
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Welcome to our page on Edinburgh’s history…isn’t every page on our site about this fascinating topic?  Well yes, but here’s an outline of the story of Edinburgh, written for us by a guest writer.
A brief history of Edinburgh
__________________________________________________________________________________________
The History of Edinburgh The City of Edinburgh has a very interesting history. There is evidence that Edinburgh’s history began thousands of years in the past. Then in the Middle Ages, a hill fort was established in the area. Then from the seventh to the tenth centuries, the city was part of the Kingdom of Northumbria and became a royal residence of the Kings of Scotland. The town became a stronghold through a royal charter in the 12th century and has been known as the capital of Scotland by the 14th century. The New Town area was added to the town in the 18th century. It used to be the largest Scottish city until Glasgow outgrew it at the beginning of the 19th century. The Beginning of the History of Edinburgh Archaeologists have discovered piles of shells that suggested the first inhabitants of Scotland ate mussels and oysters around the Firth of Forth. The camps were dated to be from 8,500 BC, which is the earliest known human activity in the country. Once the Ice Age ended, people were encouraged to make the area we know as Edinburgh their home. Signs of habitation were seen on Edinburgh’s Castle Rock and have been dated to 900 BC. There is also proof that people planted their own crops on the slopes of Arthur’s Seat as hints of cultivation terraces were discovered. Roman’s Role in Edinburgh’s History The Romans invaded Britain in 55 BC as Julius Caesar led his legions across the English Channel. But the Romans failed to easily subdue the northern tribes. From AD 78 to 84, Roman governor Agricola tried for several years to fight the people they called Picts due to their painted face and bodies. It was Agricola’s son-in- law Tacitus who called the northern part of Scotland Caledonia, after the first tribe he encountered.  Emperor Hadrian decided that most of the land in the north was inhospitable and in AD 122 to 128, he built the wall that remained to be the modern border between England and Scotland. History of Edinburgh’s Name When the Roman got to Lothian region, they met Votadini the chief tribe of the settlements on Blackford Hill, Arthur’s Seat and Castle Rock. There’s little known about these early Britons, but it is likely they were the ancestors of the Gododdin. The centre of Gododdin was named Dun Eiden, which means Fort on the Hill Slope. Scholars say, it is what is now known as Castle Rock. The Angles defeated Gododdin and got Dun Eiden in 638. The Angles used the existing Celtic name Eiden and added burh, the Old English for fort. And that’s the history of Edinburgh’s name. Edinburgh’s History during the Reign of the MacAlpin Kings The name Scotland comes from Scotti, a Gaelic tribe that took the west of Scotland in the 6th century. The Scots and Picts got together due to the threat of a Viking invasion as well as their Christianity. Kenneth MacAlpin, king of Dalraida and son of a Pictish princess, united Scotland into a single kingdom. In 1035 his grandson Duncan I became the first King of Scotland. Edinburgh’s History in the Medieval and Renaissance Era King Malcolm III Canmore built his castle at Edinburgh, and his wife Queen Margaret constructed a chapel inside its perimeter. It remains the city’s oldest building to date. Their son David I constructed the Abbey at Holyrood to the East along the Royal Mile. A town grew along the side of the road between the castle and the abbey. During the Wars of Independence, the English captured Edinburgh Castle but it was recaptured by Thomas Randolph by climbing up the craggy side at night. The hero was Robert the Bruce’s nephew. It was Robert the Bruce who gave Edinburgh a Royal Chapter. Since then it grew and became the Capital of Scotland by the end of 1603. When King James VI became the king of England in 1603, Edinburgh stopped to be the main site of the royal court but it retained its own Parliament. History of Edinburgh and its Union with England When the investment venture in Panama failed, bankruptcy spread throughout Scotland. Scottish merchants and stockholders want to pursue union with England in order to make money in the developing colonies. Even though the public didn’t want it, the Act of Union took effect on May 1, 1707. It brought the two countries having one sovereign, one flag and one parliament. This was one of the memorable moments in Edinburgh’s history. New Town in the History of Edinburgh Edinburgh stabilised in the second half of the 18th century and allowed the town to expand, but the Old Town tenements around the Royal Mile were becoming more unsanitary to live in and too overcrowded. The city council proposed an architectural competition to make a New Town. Over the next 50 years, Georgian terraces were constructed across the low ridge north of Edinburgh Castle. Edinburgh’s History during the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution didn’t affect Edinburgh as much as Glasgow, but it brought changes to the town. Aside from the traditional industries of brewing, baking, publishing, and distilling, new industries were introduced. Edinburgh became home to glass factories, light engineering, potteries, and ironworks. Its population increased rapidly and in 1822; the Union Canal was completed. It allowed coal from the Midlothian mines to be transported to the Clyde Canal and Forth towards Glasgow. But just as the canal was completed, it became useless due to the railways. Modern History of Edinburgh After the landslide victory of the Labour Party in 1997, a referendum was held with regards to the creation of a Scottish Parliament. The result was in favour and the Scotland Act 1998 declared the creation of the parliament. Elections were held on May 1999, and the parliament convened on May 12, six days after the election. Its former home was in the Church of Scotland at the top of the Royal Mile, but it was moved to its current home in Holyrood at the foot the of Royal Mile.
Salisbury Crags Arthurs Seat terracing Edinburgh Castle siege New Town Edinburgh symmetry
NAVIGATION
SOCIAL
ADDRESS 28/2 Bridge Road Colinton Edinburgh United Kingdom EH13 0LQ
CONTACT Mail: robert@historicedinburghtours.co.uk Phone: 079590026077
Copyright Historic Edinburgh Tours 2017
  
LEGAL
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